Government of Georgia – Judicial Power

Judicial Power

In Georgia the judiciary is administered through the justice, constitutional control and other forms established by the law.

The public justice is one of the forms of administration of the judicial power. The justice is administered by the common courts through the civil, administrative and criminal procedures.

The common courts of Georgia are district (city) court, court of appeals, Supreme Court of Georgia.

District (city) court is the court of first instance which tries cases attributed to its jurisdiction by one judge under the procedure established by the procedural law or in the cases provided by the law by a panel of three judges.

Court of appeals hears appeals on decisions of district (city) courts by a panel of 3 judges under the rules established by the procedural law.

The above mentioned matters are regulated by the Organic Law of Georgia On Common Courts , passed by the Parliament of Georgia on June 13, 1997.

As to the Supreme Court of Georgia it is the court of cassation of the highest and final instance administering justice through all Georgia.

The Supreme Court of Georgia in the prescribed procedural form provides supervision over the administration of justice at common courts of Georgia and exercises also other powers specified by Articles 63, 64 and 88 of the Constitution of Georgia and applicable law of Georgia.

The legal activity of the Supreme Court is based on the Organic Law of Georgia On Supreme Court of Georgia adopted by the Parliament of Georgia on May 12, 1999.

The Constitutional Court of Georgia is the authority of constitutional control.

Noteworthy is that in case of violation of rights and freedoms guaranteed by Chapter 2 of the Constitution of Georgia, any person shall have the right to apply to the Constitutional Court of Georgia for protection of his/her rights and freedoms.

The Constitutional Court of Georgia is composed of 9 judges - the members of the Constitutional Court.

The Constitutional Court of Georgia secures the supremacy of the Constitution, constitutional legitimacy and protection of constitutional human rights and freedoms.

Noteworthy is that the decision of the Constitutional Court is final and not subject to appeal or review.

The matters of activity of the Constitutional Court are regulated by the organic Law of Georgia On Constitutional Court of Georgia dated January 31, 1996 and Law of Georgia On Constitutional Procedures dated March 21, 1996.

In Georgia like in other democratic countries the state authority is exercised by the principle of separation of powers. Consequently, the state is separated into legislative, executive and judiciary. Thanks to its important functions and high destination the judiciary holds special position in the system of state authorities.